In finding marine fossils in the Glenshaw Formation, I have noticed three distinct preservation types within the limestone. This does not say that there are only three, but these are the most common I have identified. All these involve the preservation of marine creatures’ remains in limestone. Marine limestone is a sedimentary rock that forms in warm shallow seas. Non-marine limestone forms in lakes, tufa deposits, etc.

Marine animals use calcium carbonate to create their shells, for living in, and for general protection. This calcium carbonate also precipitates, like continuous rain, over the seafloor. This material combines with sediment on the seafloor into limestones I find, which is a natural cement. A key ingredient in cement is lime from limestone, while cement is a key ingredient in concrete. This rock formed after hundreds of millions of years underground, with more and more sedimentary rocks adding compression from the crushing weight above.

The First Type: Standard Limestone

Some limestones are quite hard and can be difficult to work with for extracting fossils. But, I have found three different preservation types of this rock, depending on its location. In the Brush Creek limestone, there is what I am calling a standard limestone, which is very hard, heavy, and not prone to breaking. While there are some cleavage planes through these boulders, you need a very heavy hammer to get them to split. Yet, it can be brittle when dry, with vertical splits crossing several cleavage planes. This limestone is no more than a foot thick in Parks Township, but it can be several feet thick in other places. This depends slightly on how long the sea persisted, and more on the rate of sedimentation.

Specimens within have some unique properties. Steinkerns (molded representation of a creature created by filling hollow portions with sediments during the fossilization process) are solid, made of this type of limestone. Any preserved shell-bearing marine creatures are difficult to extract as intact specimens. The outside, textured part of shells adheres to the matrix, while the smooth portions that face inward separate easily. So when you split a rock, and there is a fossil cephalopod, brachiopod, or gastropod on the plane of cleavage, the shell will remain to one side, and the exposed steinkern on the other.

CG-0066, Solenochilus.
CG-0066, Solenochilus. This is mostly a steinkern of the original shell, with most of the shell material remaining on the rock it came from. The lighter brown material on the right may be of type 2, weathered limestone.

Unique Brush Creek specimen preservation

One unique trait for recovered finds from this type of limestone is the preservation of shell material on brachiopods and gastropods. These shells appear as a bright white color against the dark gray color of the limestone. Their shells consist of calcium carbonate, but it is only one of three naturally occurring crystal forms. It is a white color likely due to the recrystallization of the original calcite shell. This unique preservation also occurs within the Pine Creek limestone, just not in the exact same way.

CG-0020, Linoproductus.
CG-0020, Linoproductus. Preserved calcite that has undergone recrystallization is shown in white color.

The Second Type: Weathered Limestone

While the standard limestone is very hard, it is not intact in nature. Especially over large areas. These pieces can be several different sizes, depending on where they are located. Some pieces are as large as a school desk, some as long and wide as a bus. These appear to occur throughout the layer, but, they may be only towards the exposed edges. In western Pennsylvania, there are synclines and anticlines, which are up and down folds of the stratum. This manipulation of once-level layers causes stress fracturing.

Even so, these fractures are margins in the rock that allow water to seep through. Over a very long period of time, this water creates a sort of rind on the outside of the rock. Float limestone lying in water goes through a similar transformation. The dark color turns to brown, and most of the calcite within appears to dissolve away. There are many variations of these, with some still being a dark color, and others being very light and brown. The variation in color depends on the time of exposure to chemical weather agents like mineral-laden water.

CG-0319 Mooreoceras sp.—The inner preserved details are easy to spot in this specimen from the weathered limestone.

Fossils found in this layer have some unique properties. They are often fragile, like the matrix they come from. They can be only a surviving steinkern or a shell that has changed properties. A find that prompted me to write this article was of a Metacoceras that had separated camerae (chambers in the shell). In standard-type limestone, these specimens hold together as one piece. In the first type of limestone, there is a discernable calcite layer, called the septum between them. This septum is nearly absent in this type of stone. This type of preservation displays intricate details of each camera of the cephalopod’s shell. The empty chambers that filled with sediment are now each a steinkern.

Example Specimens from Weathered Limestone

CG-0008, Eomarginifera longispinus. Very fine details are preserved, enabling them to be studied from specimens in this type of limestone.
CG-0008, Eomarginifera longispinus. Very fine details are preserved, enabling them to be studied from specimens in this type of limestone.
A straight-shelled cephalopod, Mooreoceras sp., preserved in the softened limestone matrix
CG-0160, Mooreoceras sp. An orthocone (straight-shelled) cephalopod was preserved in the softened limestone matrix. Each individual camera (chamber) is able to be freed and details can be seen. In the first type of limestone, this would adhere together with calcite, and be difficult to separate.
CG-0162 Eomarginifera longispinus—Inner shell details for this brachiopod are very easy to see when found in this type of limestone. The specimen is very fragile, it could be turned to dust by simply using a strong thumb.
CG-0162 Eomarginifera longispinus—Inner shell details for this brachiopod are very easy to see when found in this type of limestone. The specimen is very fragile, it could be turned to dust by simply using a strong thumb.

The Third Type: Fissile Limestone

The third type is similar to the standard limestone. The key difference is that it is very fissile. This has been my experience in working with the Pine Creek limestone in the Kittanning area. This material splits into many different planes. It is similar to shale. Specimens in this matrix preserve the aragonite as a white chalky material, similar to the first type. There are advantages to fissile limestone, but there can be problems with it as well.

Using cephalopods as an example, I have been able to recover preserved portions of the shell. The fissile nature of the rock helps it not to adhere to the shell, and I have been able to discover three-dimensional pieces of shells of cephalopods. Gastropods are another type that is easy to recover. The compact nature of the shells allows them to stay intact and simply fall out of the matrix when searching through them.

Example Specimens from Fissile Limestone

Portions of a cephalopod shell recovered from the more fissile Pine Creek limestone.
Portions of a cephalopod shell recovered from the more fissile Pine Creek limestone.
CG-0060, Shansiella carbonaria
CG-0060, Shansiella carbonaria. The shell exterior is near flawless in detail available as the fissile limestone does not readily adhere to it.
CG-0104, Astartella concentrica
CG-0104, Astartella concentrica. This bivalve has preserved shell material and was found in the fissile Pine Creek limestone.
CG-0344 Domatoceras sp.—The fine details such as growth lines are easy to see here. The limestone did not strongly adhere to the shell, allowing features to be seen. Paraloid was used to stabilize the specimen during matrix removal, as jarring of it can cause the fossilized shell material to crack and fall off during preparation.
CG-0344 Domatoceras sp.—The fine details such as growth lines are easy to see here. The limestone did not strongly adhere to the shell, allowing features to be seen. Paraloid was used to stabilize the specimen during matrix removal, as jarring of it can cause the fossilized shell material to crack and fall off during preparation.
CG-0455 Poterioceras curtum—This is the outside of the shell for this cephalopod, with several preserved details visible. The fissile limestone allows exposure of these details.

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